Rosacea is a chronic skin condition that primarily affects the face, causing redness, visible blood vessels, and sometimes acne-like bumps. It typically begins after the age of 30 and is more common in fair-skinned individuals. While the exact cause of rosacea is unknown, several factors are believed to contribute to its development, including genetic predisposition, abnormalities in blood vessels, and immune system dysfunction.

Key features

The symptoms of rosacea can vary in severity from mild to severe and may come and go over time. Common signs and symptoms include:

Facial redness

Persistent redness, often resembling a flushed or sunburned appearance, is a hallmark of rosacea. It usually affects the cheeks, nose, forehead, and chin.


Episodes of facial flushing or blushing may occur, triggered by various factors such as heat, sunlight, stress, spicy foods, or alcohol.

Visible blood vessels

Small, swollen blood vessels (telangiectasia) may become visible on the skin, particularly in the central face.

Eye problems

In some cases, rosacea can affect the eyes, causing symptoms such as dryness, irritation, burning, redness, and a gritty sensation. This condition is known as ocular rosacea.

Papules and pustules

Some individuals with rosacea experience acne-like breakouts, consisting of small red bumps (papules) or pus-filled bumps (pustules). These can be mistaken for acne but typically lack blackheads and whiteheads.

Thickened skin

In advanced cases of rosacea, the skin on the nose may become thicker and develop a bumpy texture. This condition, called rhinophyma, is more common in men.


Prescription topical creams or gels containing ingredients such as metronidazole, azelaic acid, minocycline or brimonidine can help reduce redness, inflammation, and acne-like lesions associated with rosacea. These medications are applied directly to the affected skin.

Various laser and light-based treatments can be effective in reducing redness, visible blood vessels, and improving overall skin appearance. These therapies target the blood vessels and excess skin pigment associated with rosacea.

In more severe cases of rosacea, oral medications such as antibiotics (e.g., tetracycline, doxycycline,minocycline) may be prescribed. These medications help reduce inflammation and control bacterial overgrowth on the skin, which can contribute to flare-ups.

Treatment plans for rosacea are personalized based on the individual’s specific symptoms and their response to different interventions.

It’s important to consult with a dermatologist or healthcare professional who specializes in rosacea to develop an appropriate treatment plan and receive ongoing management for this chronic condition.