Dandruff, also known as seborrheic dermatitis, is a common skin condition that primarily affects the scalp. It is characterized by the presence of white or yellowish flakes of dead skin that shed from the scalp and may be accompanied by itching and irritation. While it is not a serious medical condition, dandruff can be persistent and cause discomfort or self-consciousness.

Key features


The exact cause of dandruff is not fully understood, but several factors may contribute to its development:

Overgrowth of yeast

The presence of a naturally occurring yeast called Malassezia on the scalp is believed to play a role in dandruff. An overgrowth of this yeast can lead to an inflammatory response and increased shedding of skin cells.

Individual susceptibility

Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to dandruff, making them more susceptible to its development.

Sebum production

Sebum, the natural oil produced by the scalp, can contribute to the development of dandruff. Excessive sebum production or an imbalance in its composition can create an environment conducive to the growth of Malassezia and the subsequent development of dandruff.


Managing and controlling dandruff typically involves the following recommendations

This shampoos help control the oiliness, scaling, inflammation and yeast associated with this condition.

Help control the inflammation, dryness and prolonged disease stage mostly when this condition affects the face and neck. This medication work also as a control of flares.

Help control the inflammation, redness and itchiness associated with the scalp lesions.

If over-the-counter treatments do not effectively control dandruff or if the condition worsens or spreads to other areas, it is advisable to consult a dermatologist. They can provide further evaluation and prescribe stronger medications or treatments, if necessary, to manage the condition effectively.


Here are some recommendations for managing and preventing dandruff

Wash your hair and scalp regularly with a mild, anti-dandruff shampoo. Aim for at least two to three times per week or as recommended by the product instructions.

Some hair styling products, such as gels, mousses, and hairsprays, can contribute to dandruff or make it worse. Limit their use or choose products labeled as “non-comedogenic” or “scalp-friendly.”

Look for shampoos that specifically target dandruff and contain active ingredients such as zinc pyrithione, selenium sulfide, ketoconazole, or coal tar. These ingredients help control the growth of the yeast that contributes to dandruff and reduce inflammation.

Keeping your scalp clean and healthy can help prevent dandruff. Follow good hygiene practices, such as regular shampooing and rinsing thoroughly to remove any residue.

While shampooing, gently massage your scalp with your fingertips to help loosen and remove flakes. Avoid using your nails, as it can lead to further irritation.

Stress can worsen dandruff symptoms. Practice stress management techniques such as exercise, meditation, deep breathing, or engaging in activities you enjoy to help reduce stress levels.

Use lukewarm water instead of hot water when washing your hair, as hot water can strip the scalp of natural oils and exacerbate dryness. Also, avoid harsh shampoos that can further irritate the scalp.

While diet alone may not directly cause or cure dandruff, some evidence suggests that a healthy diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B, and zinc may promote a healthy scalp. Incorporate foods such as fish, nuts, seeds, fruits, and vegetables into your diet.

If over-the-counter anti-dandruff shampoos and home remedies do not provide relief or if your symptoms persist or worsen, it’s recommended to consult a dermatologist. They can evaluate your condition, provide a proper diagnosis, and recommend prescription-strength treatments if needed.

Extreme cold or dry weather conditions can worsen dandruff symptoms. Wear hats or use scarves to protect your scalp from harsh environmental factors.


Everyone’s scalp is unique, and what works for one person may not work for another. It may take some trial and error to find the most effective approach for managing your dandruff.