Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune skin disorder that affects the life cycle of skin cells. It causes the skin cells to multiply at an accelerated rate, leading to the formation of thick, red patches covered with silvery scales. These patches, known as plaques, can occur anywhere on the body but are most commonly found on the scalp, elbows, knees, lower back, and nails.
Psoriasis is a non-contagious condition that can vary in severity and can have periods of flare-ups and remissions.

Key features


The most common manifestation of psoriasis is the development of thick, raised, and inflamed skin patches. These plaques are often red or pink and covered with silver or white scales. They can be itchy, painful, and may crack or bleed in severe cases.

Nail changes

Psoriasis can affect the nails, causing pitting (small dents), discoloration, thickening, and separation of the nail from the nail bed. In some cases, nails may become crumbly or develop ridges.

Scalp involvement

Psoriasis frequently affects the scalp, leading to the formation of scaly patches or dandruff-like flakes. It can cause itching and discomfort and may extend to the forehead, neck, or behind the ears.

Joint inflammation

Some individuals with psoriasis may develop a related condition called psoriatic arthritis, which causes joint pain, stiffness, and swelling. Psoriatic arthritis can affect any joint in the body and may lead to significant joint damage if left untreated.


Certain factors can trigger or worsen psoriasis flare-ups. These triggers can vary among individuals and may include stress, infections, injury to the skin, certain medications (such as beta-blockers or lithium), cold and dry weather, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

Emotional impact

Psoriasis can have a significant impact on an individual’s emotional well-being. It may cause feelings of self-consciousness, embarrassment, frustration, or low self-esteem. Psychological support and counseling can be helpful in managing the emotional aspects of living with psoriasis.


Psoriasis is considered an autoimmune disease, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the body. While the exact cause of psoriasis is not fully understood, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.


These medications are applied directly to the affected skin and include topical corticosteroids, vitamin D analogs, retinoids, coal tar preparations, moisturizers and new topical immunomodulators. They help reduce inflammation, itching, and scaling associated with psoriasis.

In some cases, a combination of topical treatments, phototherapy, and systemic medications may be used to effectively manage psoriasis symptoms and achieve better control of the condition.

For more severe cases of psoriasis that do not respond to topical treatments or phototherapy, oral or injected systemic medications may be prescribed. These medications work throughout the body to suppress or  modulate the immune system and reduce inflammation. Examples include methotrexate, cyclosporine, acitretin, apremilast, JAK and TIK inhibitors and biologic agents such as TNF-alpha inhibitors, interleukin-17 inhibitors, and interleukin-23 inhibitors.

This treatment involves exposing the skin to specific wavelengths of ultraviolet light, either from natural sunlight or artificial light sources. Phototherapy can help slow down the excessive skin cell growth and reduce inflammation. Different types of phototherapy include narrowband UVB, broadband UVB, and psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy.

This device is a type of laser therapy used to treat skin conditions like psoriasis and vitiligo. It delivers focused ultraviolet B (UVB) light to target affected areas, reducing symptoms such as redness, scaling, and depigmentation. It is a non-invasive procedure performed in short sessions, typically scheduled over several weeks. The laser is precise, targeting specific areas while minimizing exposure to healthy skin.

Dr. Ciocca is a highly regarded dermatologist and an esteemed researcher who is actively involved as a principal investigator in ongoing clinical trials for phase 2 and 3 of innovative immunomodulatory treatments for Atopic Dermatitis.

If you are interested in participating in these promising trials or seeking more information, we encourage you to reach out to our dedicated research team at They will provide you with the necessary details and assist you professionally throughout the process.


Here are some recommendations to manage and alleviate symptoms of psoriasis:

Work closely with your dermatologist to develop a personalized treatment plan that may include topical medications, phototherapy, or systemic medications. Adhere to the prescribed treatment regimen and follow up with your healthcare provider regularly.

Gently cleanse your skin with mild, fragrance-free soaps or cleansers. Avoid harsh or abrasive scrubbing, which can irritate your skin and worsen symptoms. Pat your skin dry after bathing instead of rubbing.

Apply moisturizers regularly to help reduce dryness and itching. Look for products specifically formulated for sensitive or psoriasis-prone skin, and choose fragrance-free and hypoallergenic options.

If your healthcare provider has prescribed topical medications or other treatments, use them as instructed. Follow the recommended frequency and application techniques to achieve the best results.

Identify and avoid triggers that can worsen your psoriasis symptoms. These may include stress, certain foods, alcohol, smoking, cold and dry weather, and skin injuries. Keeping a journal can help you track potential triggers.

Protect your skin from injury and irritation. Avoid scratching or picking at psoriasis plaques, as this can worsen symptoms and potentially lead to infection. Use soft, breathable fabrics and avoid tight clothing that can rub against your skin.

Stress can exacerbate psoriasis symptoms for many individuals. Incorporate stress management techniques into your daily routine, such as exercise, meditation, deep breathing exercises, or engaging in activities that you enjoy.

Adopting a healthy lifestyle can have a positive impact on your overall well-being and may help manage psoriasis symptoms. Eat a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains. Stay physically active and maintain a healthy weight.


Psoriasis is a chronic condition, and managing it requires ongoing care and attention. Each person’s experience with psoriasis is unique, so it may take some time to find the most effective combination of treatments and lifestyle adjustments for your specific needs. Work closely with your healthcare provider to find the best approach to manage your psoriasis and improve your quality of life.